Skip to content

Covariance and contravariance in generic types

Static typing is awesome. It helps to detect bugs, acts as in-code documentation and makes development more enjoyable. Recently I've started to use Python's typing module to add static typing to all of my Python projects. Python's typing system may not be as as powerful as one might hope, but I think once you go typed, you don't go back.

It is, however, easy to run into non-intuitive errors when defining types for generic types such as lists and dictionaries. Assume, for example, that a DogContainer takes a List of Dogs in the constructor:

from typing import List

class Dog:

class DogContainer:

    def __init__(self, dogs: List[Dog]):
        self.dogs = dogs

Now let's add some corgis to the container:

class Corgi(Dog):

corgis: List[Corgi] = [Corgi(), Corgi()]
container = DogContainer(dogs=corgis)  # ERROR!

Type-checker raises the following error:

Argument of type 'List[Corgi]' cannot be assigned to parameter 'dogs' of type 'List[Dog]': 'Corgi' is incompatible with 'Dog'.

Why doesn't this work? Surely one can substitute a list of corgis for a list of dogs?


Let's step back and ponder why we think we can substitute List[Corgi] for List[Dog]. Because Corgi is a subtype of Dog (we write Corgi <: Dog, meaning we can use an instance of Corgi wherever an instance of Dog is expected), we think it should follow that List[Corgi] <: List[Dog]. This property is called covariance.

Generic class C[T] is covariant in type variable T if the following holds: A <: B ⇒ C[A] <: C[B]

We saw above that List[Corgi] is not a subtype of List[Dog]. Therefore, List is not covariant in its type variable.

Why is List not covariant? The problem is that one can add new objects to List, i.e., it's mutable. Or to put it another way, List is not covariant because it acts as a sink of its type variable. Think of the following code:

class StBernard:

def do_stuff(dogs: List[Dog]) -> None:
    """Function that secretly adds Beethoven to the input list.

corgis: List[Corgi] = ...
last_corgi = corgis.pop()  # BOOM, type-safety broken! You think you have a corgi but you have Beethoven

The problem here is the append method. What if we removed any methods from List that make it mutable? That would essentially give us a Sequence, an immutable list.

Sequence is different from List in that it's a pure source of data. Intuitively, it is clear that any piece of code expecting a source of dogs would be happy to receive a source of corgis instead. Therefore, we can state that

A <: BSequence[A] <: Sequence[B]

Therefore, Sequence[T] is covariant in T. Another example of an immutable container is Mapping, a read-only version of Dict.

Pure sources are covariant

Let us generalize the previous discussion to the following rule of thumb:

If a generic class C[T] is a pure source of instances of type T, it is covariant in T.

Why are sources covariant? Assume you have A <: B. Now imagine you have any code that depend on Source[B]. Can you substitute Source[A]? Yes, because Source[A] produces instances of type A that are valid instances of B.

For example, think of a class Breeder[T] that produces dogs of type T. Covariance means that Breeder[Corgi] <: Breeder[Dog]. In other words, any code expecting a Breeder[Dog] would be happy to receive a Breeder[Corgi]. This makes sense intuitively.

The following piece of code shows how we could define a Breeder class and mark it covariant in its type variable with covariant=True:

import abc
from typing import TypeVar

DogType_co = TypeVar('T', bound=Dog, covariant=True)

class Breeder(abc.ABC, Generic[DogType_co]):
    def get(self) -> DogType_co:

class CorgiBreeder(Breeder[Corgi]):
    def get(self) -> Corgi:
        print("Breeding a corgi")
        return Corgi()

breeder: Breeder[Dog] = CorgiBreeder()  # cast allowed because of covariance


If you look at the code from above where type-safety was broken, you may notice that another way to achieve type-safety would be to prevent reading from corgis. In other words, List should be write-only or a sink.

As a concrete example of a sink, consider the Photographer class where the generic type must be a Dog:

from typing import Generic,TypeVar

DogType = TypeVar('DogType', bound=Dog)

class Photographer(Generic[DogType_contra]):

    def photograph(self, dog: DogType_co):
        print("Photographing dog")

class CorgiPhotographer(Photographer[Corgi]):
    def photograph(self, corgi: Corgi):

    def feed_sausage_to(self, corgi: Corgi):
        print("Feeding sausage to corgi")

class DogPhotographer(Photographer[Dog]):
    def photograph(self, dog: Dog):

Can we assume Photographer[Corgi] <: Photographer[Dog]? This would mean that anywhere we need a dog photographer, we can use a corgi photographer. This is not the case: a corgi photographer cannot photograph a St. Bernard.

However, the inverse does hold: If one needs a photographer of corgis, a photographer of generic dogs definitely can handle the job. Formally, Photographer[Dog] <: Photographer[Corgi].

Photographer is an example of a class that is contravariant in its type variable.The formal definition is:

Generic class C[T] is contravariant in type variable T if the following holds: A <: B => C[A] :> C[B]

The way to mark the class to be contravariant in its type variable is to set contravariant=True:

DogType_contra = TypeVar('DogType_contra', bound=Dog, contravariant=True)

Thanks to contravariance, we can perform casts as follows:

dog_photographer: Photographer[Corgi] = DogPhotographer()  # Photographer[Dog] <: Photographer[Corgi]

Pure sinks are covariant

Photographer is contravariant in its type variable because it's a pure sink for dogs. It does not produce new dogs, but only consumes them (eww). We arrive at the following rule of thumb:

If a generic class C[T] is a pure sink of instances of type T, it is contravariant in T.

Why are sinks covariant? Assume you have A <: B and imagine you have any code that depends on Sink[A]. Can you substitute a Sink[B]? Yes, because Sink[B] is prepared to consume any B and, because A is a subtype of B, it can also consume instances of type A.

Invariant types

Generic types that are neither covariant nor contravariant are invariant in their type variables. We saw above that List is an example of an invariant generic type.

As another example of an invariant generic type, consider a RescueShelter[D] class. An instance of RescueShelter[D] accepts new poorly treated dogs of type D and delivers them to their new homes.

RescueShelter is both a source and a sink of dogs, so it's neither contravariant nor covariant. One cannot substitute RescueShelter[Corgi] for RescueShelter[Dog], because RescueShelter[Corgi] does not accept dogs other than corgis. Similarly, one cannot substitute RescueShelter[Dog] for RescueShelter[Corgi], because a person looking for a corgi from rescue shelter would not be happy to get a St Bernard dog.

This example illustrates the danger of relying too much on intuition. Intuitively, it might seem clear that a rescue shelter of corgis "is" a rescue shelter of dogs, and one might substitute the former for the latter. We saw above that this is only true if the rescue shelter only acts as a source of dogs.


In conclusion, it's generally easier to work with generic types that are either covariant or contravariant. Next time you define a function or data structure depending on List or Dict, think carefully if you need to mutate the object. If not, you should probably use Sequence or Mapping instead. Similarly, if you do not need to read from your generic type, you may want to define it as write-only and mark the type variable as contravariant.

Thanks for reading! If there's anything here that seems wrong or inaccurate, please leave a comment.

Remember to enjoy corgis responsibly.